After the end of the full state control in , there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq. Wikiversity Learning resources. Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb.
It has been recognized since as the boundary between western Kuwait and Iraq. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Chambers Majid Khadduri John E. These rivers provide Iraq with significant amounts of fertile land. The region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivershistorically known as Mesopotamiais often referred to as the cradle of civilisation.
It was here that mankind first began to read, write, create laws and live in cities under an organised government—notably Urukfrom which "Iraq" is derived. The area has been home to successive civilisations since the 6th millennium BC. The country today known as Iraq was a region of the Ottoman Empire until the partition of the Ottoman Empire in the 20th century. A British-backed monarchy joining these vilayets into one Kingdom was established in under Faisal I of Iraq.
Inthe monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created. Iraq was controlled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from until After ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq invasion by the United States and its allies inSaddam Hussein 's Ba'ath Party was removed from power, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in The US presence in Iraq ended in but the Iraqi insurgency continued and intensified as fighters from the Syrian Civil War spilled into the country.
Out of the insurgency came a highly destructive group calling itself ISILwhich took large parts of the north and west. It has since been largely defeated. Disputes over the sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan continue.
A referendum about the full sovereignty of Iraqi Kurdistan was held on 25 September Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of 19 governorates provinces and one autonomous region Iraqi Kurdistan.History of Iraq (Mesopotamia) Part 8 تأريخ العراق
The country's official religion is Islam. CulturallyIraq has a very rich heritage and celebrates the achievements of its past in both pre-Islamic as well as post-Islamic times and is known for its poets. Its painters and sculptors are among the best in the Arab worldsome of them being world-class as well as producing fine handicrafts, including rugs and carpets.
There are several suggested origins for the name. The term Sawad was also used in early Islamic times for the region of the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, contrasting it with the arid Arabian desert. Between 65, BC and 35, BC best dating app Iraq was home to a Neanderthal culture, archaeological remains of which have been discovered at Shanidar Cave  This same region is also the location of a number of pre-Neolithic cemeteries, dating from approximately 11, BC.
Since approximately 10, BC, Iraq alongside Asia Minor and The Levant was one of centres of a Caucasoid Neolithic culture known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone, gypsum and burnt lime Vaisselle blanche. Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. The historical period in Iraq truly begins during the Uruk period BC to BCwith the founding of a number of Sumerian citiesand the use of PictographsCylinder seals and mass-produced goods.
The " Cradle of Civilization " is thus a common term for the area comprising modern Iraq as it was home to the earliest known civilisationthe Sumerian civilisationwhich arose in the fertile Tigris-Euphrates river valley of southern Iraq in the Chalcolithic Ubaid period. It was here, in the late 4th millennium BCthat the world's first writing system and recorded history itself were born. The Sumerians were also the first to harness the wheel and create City Statesand whose writings record the first evidence of MathematicsAstronomyAstrologyWritten LawMedicine and Organised religion.
The language of the Sumerians is a language isolate. The cities to the north like AshurArbela modern Erbil and Arrapha modern Kirkuk were also extant in what free telugu chat rooms pradesh to be called Assyria from the 25th century BC; however, at this early stage, they were Sumerian ruled administrative centres.
In the 26th century BC, Eannatum of Lagash ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq what was perhaps the first empire in history, though this was short-lived. Later, Lugal-Zage-Sithe priest-king of Ummaoverthrew the primacy of the Lagash dynasty in ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq area, ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq, then conquered Urukmaking it his capital, and claimed an empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean.
From the 29th century BC, Akkadian Semitic names began to appear on king lists and administrative documents of various city states. It remains unknown as to the origin of Akkad, where it was precisely situated and how it rose to prominence.
Its people spoke Akkadianan East Semitic language. During the 3rd millennium BC, a cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism. The influences between Sumerian and Akkadian are evident in all areas, including lexical borrowing on a massive scale—and syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence. This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund.
Between the 29th and 24th centuries BC, a number of kingdoms and city states within Iraq began to have Akkadian speaking dynasties; including AssyriaEkallatumIsin and Larsa. However, the Sumerians remained generally dominant until the rise of the Akkadian Empire — BCbased in the city of Akkad in central Iraq. Sargon of Akkadoriginally a Rabshakeh to a Sumerian king, founded the empire, he conquered all of the city states of southern and central Iraq, and subjugated the kings of Assyria, thus uniting the Sumerians and Akkadians in one state.
He then set about expanding his empire, conquering GutiumElam and had victories that did not result into a full conquest ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq the Amorites and Eblaites of Ancient Syria. After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire in the late 22nd century BC, the Gutians occupied the south for a few decades, while Assyria reasserted its independence in the north. This was followed by a Sumerian renaissance in the form of the Neo-Sumerian Empire. The Sumerians under king Shulgi conquered almost all of Iraq except the northern reaches of Assyria, and asserted women seeking men edison nj over the GutiansElamites and Amoritesdestroying the first and holding off the others.
An Elamite invasion in BC brought the Sumerian revival to an end. By the mid 21st century BC, the Akkadian speaking kingdom of Assyria had risen to dominance in northern Iraq. Assyria expanded territorially into the north eastern Levant, central Iraq, and eastern Anatolia, forming the Old Assyrian Empire circa — BC under kings such as Puzur-Ashur ISargon IIlushuma and Erishum Ithe latter of whom produced the most detailed set of law yet written.
During the 20th century BC, the Canaanite speaking Amorites began to migrate into southern Mesopotamia. Eventually, they began to set up small petty kingdoms in the south, as well as usurping the thrones of extant city states such as IsinLarsa and Eshnunna.
One of these small Amorite kingdoms founded in BC contained the then small administrative town of Babylon within its borders.
It remained insignificant for over a century, overshadowed by older and more powerful states, such as Assyria, Elam, Isin, Ehnunna and Larsa. In BC, an Amorite ruler named Hammurabi came to power in this state, and immediately set about building Babylon from a minor town into a major city, declaring himself its king. Hammurabi conquered the whole of southern and central Iraq, as well as Elam to the east and Mari to the west, then engaged in a protracted war with the Assyrian king Ishme-Dagan for domination of the region, creating the short-lived Babylonian Empire.PICTURES OF MATURE WOMEN UNDRESSING
He eventually prevailed over the successor of Ishme-Dagan and subjected Assyria and its Anatolian colonies. By the middle of the eighteenth century BC, the Sumerians had lost their cultural identity and ceased to exist as a distinct people.DO MARRIED MEN FLIRT
It is from the period of Hammurabi that southern Iraq came to be known as Babyloniawhile the north had already coalesced into Assyria hundreds of years before. However, his empire was short-lived, and rapidly collapsed after his death, with both Assyria and southern Iraq, in the form ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq the Sealand Dynastyfalling back into native Akkadian hands. The foreign Amorites clung on to power in a once more weak and small Babylonia until it was sacked by the Indo-European speaking Hittite Empire ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq in Anatolia in BC.
After this, another foreign people, the Language Isolate speaking Kassitesoriginating in the Zagros Mountains of Ancient Iranseized control of Babylonia, where they were to rule for almost years, by far the longest dynasty ever to rule in Babylon.
Iraq was from this point divided into three polities: Assyria in the north, Kassite Babylonia in the south central region, and the Sealand Dynasty in the far south. Beginning with the campaigns of Ashur-uballit IAssyria destroyed the rival Hurrian - Mitanni Empire, annexed huge swathes of the Hittite Empire for itself, annexed northern Babylonia from the Kassites, forced the Egyptian Empire from the region, and defeated the ElamitesPhrygiansCanaanitesPhoeniciansCiliciansGutiansDilmunites and Arameans.
The Kassites were driven from power by Assyria and Elam, allowing native south Mesopotamian kings and single rule Babylonia for the first time, although often subject to Assyrian or Elamite rulers. However, these East Semitic Akkadian kings, were unable to prevent new waves of West Semitic migrants entering southern Iraq, and during the 11th century BC Arameans and Suteans entered Babylonia from The Levantand these were followed in the late 10th to early 9th century BC by the migrant Chaldeans who were closely related to the earlier Arameans.
After a period of comparative decline in Assyria, it once more began to expand with the Neo Assyrian Empire — BC. It was during this period that an Akkadian influenced form of Eastern Aramaic was adopted by the Assyrians as the lingua franca of their vast empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria and Babylonia. The descendant dialects of this tongue survive amongst the Mandaeans of southern Iraq and Assyrians of northern Iraq to this day.
In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the BabyloniansChaldeansMedesPersiansParthiansScythians and Cimmerianswere able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by BC. It failed to attain the size, power or longevity of its predecessor; however, it came to dominate The LevantCanaanArabiaIsrael and Judahand to defeat Egypt.
Initially, Babylon was ruled by yet another foreign dynasty, that of the Chaldeanswho had migrated to the region in the late 10th or early 9th century BC.
Its greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar IIrivalled another non native ruler, the ethnically unrelated Amorite king Hammurabias the greatest king of Babylon. However, by BC, the Chaldeans had been deposed from power by the Assyrian born Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar. The Achaemenids made Babylon their main capital. The Chaldeans and Chaldea disappeared at around this time, though both Assyria and Babylonia endured and thrived under Achaemenid rule see Achaemenid Assyria.
Little changed under the Persians, having spent three centuries under Assyrian rule, their kings saw themselves as successors to Ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq, and they retained Assyrian Imperial Aramaic as the language of empire, together with the Assyrian imperial infrastructure, free dating in az an Assyrian style of art and architecture.
In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the region, putting it under Hellenistic Seleucid rule for over two centuries. From Syriathe Romans invaded western parts of the region several timesbriefly founding Assyria Provincia in Assyria.
Christianity began to take hold in Iraq particularly in Assyria between the 1st and 3rd centuries, and Assyria became a centre of Syriac Christianitythe Church of the East and Syriac literature. A number of independent states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as AdiabeneAssurOsroene and Hatra.
During the s and 's AD, the Sassanids gradually conquered the independent states, culminating with Assur in AD. The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empirewith both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab - Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.
Under the Rashidun Caliphatethe prophet Muhammad 's cousin and son-in-law, Alimoved his capital to Kufa when he became the fourth caliph. The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries.
Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Agespeaking at a population of more than a million,  and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age. The Mongols destroyed the city and burned its library during the ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq of Baghdad in the 13th century.The Secrets Of The CIA's Iraq Media War
InHulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire's forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, he besieged Baghdadsacked the city and massacred many of the inhabitants. The Mongols destroyed ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's House of Wisdomwhich contained countless precious and historical documents.
The city has never regained its previous pre-eminence as a major centre of culture and influence. Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for millennia. Other historians point to soil salination as the culprit in the decline in agriculture. The midth-century Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world. After the capture of Baghdad, 20, of its citizens were massacred. During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled free dating sites area now known as Iraq.
From the earliest 16th century, inas with all territories of the former White Sheep Turkmen, Iraq fell into the hands of the Iranian Safavids. Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian rivalry between the Safavids and the neighbouring Ottoman TurksIraq would be contested between the two for more than a hundred years during the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars. With the Treaty of Zuhab inmost of the territory of present-day Iraq eventually came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the eyalet of Baghdad as a result of wars with the neighbouring rival, Safavid Iran.
Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule —the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances. By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces. Ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq nomadic population swelled with the influx of bedouins from Najdin the Arabian Peninsula.
Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb. During the years —, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty of Georgian  origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Portesuppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military.
Inthe Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq. The population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century. In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut — However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs and Assyrians.
An armistice was signed in The British lost 92, soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45, prisoners of war.
By the end ofthe British had deployedmen in the area, of whichwere combat troops.
Ano ang dating pangalan ng iraq
These three provinces were joined into one Kingdom by the British after the region became a League of Nations mandateadministered under British control, with the name " State of Iraq ". In line with their " Sharifian Solution " policy, the British established the Hashemite king, Faisal I of Iraqwho had been forced out of Syria by the French, as their client ruler.
Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices. Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of the war hero T.
Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in on the urging of King Faisalthough the British retained military baseslocal militia in the form of Assyrian Leviesand transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death inwhile undermined by attempted military coupsuntil his death in Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II.
During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi Warthe United Kingdom which still maintained air bases in Iraq invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers. The war started on 2 May, and the British, together with loyal Assyrian Levies defeated the forces of Al-Gaylani, forcing an armistice on 31 May. A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy.
The occupation ended on 26 Octoberalthough Britain was to retain military bases in Iraq untilafter which the Assyrian militias were ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq.
The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Saidthe autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from toand 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II. This revolt was strongly anti-imperial and anti-monarchical in nature and had strong socialist elements.
After the latter's death inhe was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arifwho was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Husseinwho acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council RCCthen Iraq's supreme executive body, in July Inthe Iranian Revolution took place. Taking advantage of the post-revolution chaos in Iran, Iraq captured some territories in southwest of Iran, but Iran recaptured all of the lost territories within two years, and for the next six years Iran was on the offensive.
In AugustIraq invaded and annexed Kuwait. The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets    and then launched a hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.
Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war. Shortly after it ended inano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq, Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons.
It is estimated that as many aspeople, including many civilians were killed. Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq. The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed.
On 20 Marcha United States-organized coalition invaded Iraqunder the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of UN Resolution This claim was based on documents provided by the CIA and the British government and were later found to be unreliable. In May L. An insurgency against the US-led coalition -rule of Iraq began in summer within elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerilla units.
In fallself-entitled ' jihadist ' groups began targeting coalition forces. The insurgency included intense inter-ethnic violence between Ano ang dating pangalan ng bansang iraq and Shias. In Januarythe first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December.
However, insurgent attacks were common and increased free dating site finland 34, in from 26, in Duringfighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged.
Bush announced a "Surge" in the number of US troops deployed to the country. In MayIraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country. Infighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against marry rich dating site. US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in Junethough they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.
Following the withdrawal of US troops inthe insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In Februarythe Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq ;  but the initial protests did not topple the government. Napapalibutan naman ay isang bansang winasak ng exit visa for meeting people for our free.
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